The Significance of Moses and Amalek
aka Scriptural Spiritual Warfare
Now Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim.
And Moses said to Joshua, “Choose us some men and go out, fight with Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in my hand.”
So Joshua did as Moses said to him, and fought with Amalek. And Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.
And so it was, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed.
But Moses’ hands became heavy; so they took a stone and put it under him, and he sat on it. And Aaron and Hur supported his hands, one on one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.
So Joshua defeated Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Write this for a memorial in the book and recount it in the hearing of Joshua that I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.” (Exodus 17:8-14)
The Amalekites are introduced in Scripture in Genesis 14:7, shortly after Abraham had come from Ur to the land of Canaan. They were seen at this time occupying the territory southwest of the Dead Sea. Then, over four hundred years later, at the time of the Exodus under Moses, they still occupied the same general territory but had spread into other surrounding territories as well.
The Israelites were attacked by the Amalekites in extreme northwestern Arabia, in an area about 200 miles south of the Dead Sea; and the Amalekites also occupied parts of the land of Canaan at this time. Eighteen months later when Moses sent the twelve spies into the land, the spies reported that the Amalekites occupied the southern part of the land (Numbers 13:29); and some two hundred years later they were seen occupying land lying north of Jerusalem (Judges 12:15).
Thus, during Moses’ day, the Amalekites were spread across a large area. They generally occupied sections of land extending from extreme northwestern Arabia northward into the land of Canaan.
The origin of the Amalekites in Genesis 14:7 is not given. This verse provides the first mention of these war-like people, and they appear apart from any reference to their origin. However, there is a later mention of a grandson of Esau being named “Amalek” and the descendants of Esau became known as the Edomites, who occupied the land south and southwest of the Dead Sea (Genesis 36:8-12).
Thus, the Amalekites of Genesis 14:7 and the Amalekites descending from Esau both occupied the same general territory and apparently became one people (one merging with the other). Scripture, dealing with the Amalekites hundreds of years following Esau, recognizes them as comprising one nation, not two different nations.
The Amalekites held the dubious distinction of being “the first of the nations” to come against Israel following the Red Sea passage. They “laid wait” for Israel and, rather than facing the nation head-on, they attacked Israel at her weakest point, smiting the “feeble” in the rear part of the camp. And, because of who they were and what they had done, God said at the outset, “. . . I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven” (Exodus 17:14; Numbers 24:20; Deuteronomy 24:17-19).
God appointed the Israelites to be the executioners of the Amalekites (Deuteronomy 25:19; 1 Samuel 15:2, 3; 28:18; 2 Samuel 1:1-16). They were to act in this capacity on the Lord’s behalf, and, through so doing, the matter would be looked upon as the Lord Himself acting (after a similar fashion to angels acting under fixed laws throughout the Lord’s kingdom, with their actions being looked upon as the Lord’s actions [e.g., cf. Genesis 19:13, 14, 24, 25; Deuteronomy 29:23]).
However, though concentrated efforts were made to eradicate the Amalekites at different times after this (e.g., 1 Samuel 14:48; 15:2, 3; 2 Samuel 1:1), the Israelites took hundreds of years to carry out the Lord’s command. It was not until the days of Hezekiah (a king who ruled in Judah during the years 715-687 B.C.) that the Amalekites were finally and completely destroyed (1 Chronicles 4:41, 43).
And, in the process of destroying the Amalekites, God brought matters to pass after such a fashion that archaeologists and historians today can find no trace in the secular world of this once mighty nation. They exist on the pages of Scripture alone. This is how completely and thoroughly God brought matters to pass concerning their destruction. The Amalekites have literally been put out of remembrance from under heaven, exactly as God stated they would be.
Descendants of Esau
To see the true place and significance of the Amalekites in Scripture and to properly understand the typology involved at different points where these people are mentioned, one needs to go back and look at Esau as a progenitor of the Amalekites. And it matters not that the Amalekites existed as a nation prior to this time, for the Amalekite nation is seen existing apart from change throughout its history, whether before or after the days of Esau’s grandson, Amalek.
Esau is really the only link that Scripture provides to trace the origin of the Amalekites. As previously stated, they appeared during the days of Abraham apart from a reference to their origin. And the fact that they were associated with Esau at a later point in time from their original appearance must be looked upon as by divine design, for a particular reason.
It is within the person of Esau that characteristics are seen that depict the true nature of the Amalekites (within a spiritual frame of reference), allowing that which God has for man to see in passages such as Exodus 17:8-16 to become self-evident.
Esau was the firstborn son of Isaac, a man of the world, who looked upon matters — particularly matters surrounding his birthright (his rights as firstborn, the main thing singled out in Scripture about Esau) — as the world viewed them rather than as God viewed them. It is said of Esau that he “despised his birthright” (Genesis 25:34).
The Septuagint uses a word for “despised” that means that Esau regarded his birthright as a paltry thing, as insignificant or of little value. He regarded his birthright as practically worthless. And, Esau, looking upon his birthright after this fashion, sold his rights as firstborn to his twin brother, Jacob, for one meal of “bread and pottage of lentils.” He sold these rights to satisfy his hunger, to satisfy a fleshly gratification.
The account of Esau selling his birthright and not realizing its value until it was too late forms the fifth and final major warning in the book of Hebrews (12:16, 17). This account in Hebrews, chapter twelve forms the apex toward which all things in the book move. The preceding four warnings have to do with different facets of the overall teaching surrounding the birthright; and chapter eleven, the chapter on “faith” leading into chapter twelve, forms both a summation for the preceding warnings and an introduction for the final warning, tying everything together with the thought of faithfulness to one’s calling.
Esau looked at matters from the vantage point of the world. He saw things from a fleshly perspective rather than from a spiritual. And it was only at a time when it was too late that he gave thought to the spiritual, allowing him to see the birthright in its true light.
Thus, “Esau” typifies the fleshly man; and his brother, “Jacob [renamed by God: ‘Israel’],” typifies the spiritual man. This would be after a similar fashion to the way Ishmael and Isaac are set forth in preceding Scripture.
(Referring to a more specific part of the type, the name, “Jacob,” has to do with the fleshly [or natural] man; and the name, “Israel,” has to do with the spiritual man [cf. Genesis 32:28-30; Psalm 147:19, 20; Isaiah 9:8]. Note, for example, that the separate creation performed by God in Isaiah 43:1 [establishing a second creation within mankind, leaving two creations, Jew and Gentile] had to do with “Jacob,” not with Israel. Thus, this creation, because it was of the natural man, could be passed on through procreation.
Also note in Luke 1:32, 33 that Christ’s future reign is to be over “the house of Jacob,” and it is to last “forever [Greek: eis tous aionas (‘with respect to the ages’ — not only the Messianic Era but also all the succeeding ages comprising eternity)].” This verse, referring to the natural man, reveals that the Israelites will not only reside in natural bodies on this present earth throughout the Messianic Era but also on the new earth throughout the eternal ages as well [in complete keeping with the type body Lazarus possessed when he was raised from the dead, typifying the future resurrection of Israel (John 11:6, 7, 43, 44)].)
Seeing how Scripture presents Esau in connection with the rights of the firstborn is the key to correctly understanding the various spiritual lessons inherent in the different places where the Amalekites are mentioned, for this is exactly the fashion in which they appear in Scripture. The main thing marking the Amalekites would be that of possessing the mind of Esau toward the things of God, particularly those things concerning the rights of the firstborn. And, during Moses’ day, they are first seen in Scripture setting themselves in opposition to God’s firstborn son, Israel (Exodus 4:22, 23).
In the type, Israel was called out of Egypt to inherit the rights of the firstborn, within a theocracy, in another land. This was the direction toward which all things moved at this time (Exodus 15:1-18). But, then came Amalek and stood in the way, seeking through any means available to stop Israel at this point in the journey.
In the antitype, every Christian is a firstborn child of God (cf. John 3:3; Romans 8:29; Hebrews 12:23), called to inherit the rights of the firstborn in another land (heavenly, rather than earthly [cf. Ephesians 1:11-14; Philippians 3:20; Hebrews 3:1]). This is the direction toward which all things are presently moving. And Amalek, the man of flesh, is there, ready to attack, exactly as in the type (though the light now exists, the darkness remains [cf. Genesis 1:3-5; 2 Corinthians 4:6]). He will seek, through every means available, to stop Christians short of the goal.
In this respect, the man of flesh, typified by Amalek, is presented in Scripture as one whose main goal centers around opposing those called to inherit the rights of the firstborn. He is the one who stands in the way, seeking through every means available to prevent individuals from coming into a realization of the inheritance to which they have been called.
And how is Amalek to be defeated? That’s what Exodus 17:8-16 is about. This section of Scripture reveals how the man of flesh is to be defeated so that redeemed individuals can be victorious in the present warfare, allowing them to one day realize the rights of the firstborn, in another land, within a theocracy.
The Battle under Moses
Amalek appeared following the Red Sea passage and immediately following Moses smiting the rock, with water issuing forth from the rock (Exodus 17:5-8). Amalek appeared at the time when a redeemed people had been supernaturally provided with water to drink on their wilderness journey to the land of Canaan, after they had previously been supernaturally provided with manna to eat on this journey (Exodus 16:14-22). And it was at this time, on this occasion, that Amalek fought with Israel.
“Water” is used in Scripture after several fashions. It is used symbolizing cleansing, and it is used typifying both the Word of God and the Spirit of God (Ezekiel 36:25; John 2:7-9; 4:10-15; 7:37-39; 13:2-11; Ephesians 5:26).
Viewing the typical sense of “water” as it is used in Exodus 17:6, a reference to the Spirit of God would have to be in view. The “water,” as the previously provided “manna,” was a provision for the physical sustenance of the people; and both, in a typical sense, would relate to a spiritual sustenance for the people.
The “manna” would typify the Word, and the “water” would typify the Spirit, given to lead those possessing the Manna (the Word) “into all truth” (John 16:13). Both together form the complete, God-provided sustenance (physical [type]/spiritual [antitype]) for the child of God on his journey toward the land to which he has been called.
Amalek attacked the people of God at this point in time. Had they not been provided with water for their journey, he could have let them die of thirst (cf. vv. 3, 6). But God supernaturally provided water to complete His provision, the Israelites availed themselves of the provision (allowing them to continue their journey [possessing both Manna and Water]); and Amalek, in keeping with his nature, had no choice but to attack.
And, again, his attack — remaining within the thought of Esau and his view of the birthright — was designed to prevent the people of God from realizing the goal to which they had been called. Then, beyond this, Moses’ manner of defense was designed along exactly the same lines — an exact counter to that which Amalek was attempting to do.
Moses took “the rod of God” (the scepter that he had held in his hand at the time he returned from Midian to deliver the Israelites [Exodus 4:20]), went up “to the top of the hill” with Aaron and Hur, and held “the rod of God” high while the Israelites under Joshua down below fought with Amalek. And so long as Moses “held up his hand” containing the rod, Israel prevailed; but when Moses “let down his hand” containing the rod, Amalek prevailed (Exodus 17:9-11).
Moses became tired in the battle. His hands became “heavy.” So Aaron and Hur took a stone and put under him so he could sit; and they held Moses’ hands up, “the one on the one side, and the other on the other side.” And his hands stayed in place after a steady fashion, holding the rod, “until the going down of the sun” (v. 12).
During this time, Joshua, down below, led the people in battle against Amalek; and Joshua, with the help of Moses above, defeated Amalek and his people “with the edge of the sword” (v. 13).
This was, in reality, a battle won through divine power. The battle was the Lord’s. He was the One who gave the Amalekites into the hands of the Israelites (1 Samuel 17:46, 47).
And there it is! This is what Scripture itself reveals about victory or defeat relative to warring with Amalek. Victory was assured only through the Israelites following a particular plan of attack. If they hadn't, as is evident from the text through what occurred when Moses let down the rod, defeat could only have been forthcoming.
And all of this forms a type revealing how Christians, in the antitype, can realize victory through following the God-given pattern on the one hand or, on the other hand, suffer defeat should they choose to combat the enemy after any other fashion. And drawing from the overall type-antitype parallel, Christians can draw numerous invaluable lessons for the present race of the faith in which they find themselves engaged.
This was the first battle in which the Israelites under Moses found themselves engaged as they journeyed toward the land to which they had been called; and a first-mention principle, with a number of different facets, would be involved in that which is revealed surrounding the battle. And all the different facets of that which is revealed can only remain unchanged throughout Scripture for those who, in the antitype, have been called to inherit the rights of the firstborn in another land and inevitably find themselves in exactly the same battle as the Israelites found themselves.
The Battle under Christ
Scripture reveals that a Christian overcomes the flesh through mortification (Romans 8:13; Colossians 3:5). That is, he overcomes the flesh through putting to death the deeds of the flesh. The old man is to be kept in a constant state of dying. He is not to be allowed to move about, though always very much alive and ever-ready to gain the ascendancy during this present life.
But how is the old man to be put to death? How is he to be slain? Again, that’s what Exodus, chapter seventeen is about. This chapter relates the thought pattern and resulting goal of the man of flesh; and, this chapter also relates exactly how the man of flesh is to be defeated, how he is to be put to death.
His thoughts have to do with the things of the world (as Esau’s). He knows nothing about spiritual matters. His ambitions are exactly the same as those of Amalek (preventing the people of God from inheriting the rights of the firstborn). And he is to be slain exactly the same way Amalek was to be slain.
The “rod of God” is to be continuously held high from “the top of the hill”; and, at the same time, the enemy in the valley below is to be engaged and defeated “with the edge of the sword” (Exodus 17:9, 11, 13).
That translates into several things in the antitype. First of all, the battle is not natural but supernatural, as was the battle during Moses’ day. A person cannot overcome the enemy within his own strength and power. The battle against Amalek — the battle against the man of flesh — is part and parcel with the battle against the principalities and powers (Satan and his angels, the incumbent world rulers) in the heavens (Ephesians 6:10-18). One cannot be separated from the other, for Satan will use the flesh to bring about a Christian’s defeat every time if he is able to so do.
The three great enemies of the Christian are (1) the world, (2) the flesh, and (3) the devil. The first two, though not the same, are closely related; and the devil uses the things of the world or the things of the flesh (which have to do with the world) in the spiritual warfare.
“The world” is to be overcome through faith (1 John 5:4, 5); “the flesh” is to be overcome through mortification (Romans 8:13; Colossians 3:5); and “the devil” is to be overcome through resisting (1 Peter 5:9; James 4:7). That is, Satan will seek to bring about a Christian’s fall through the things of “the world” or “the flesh”; and Christians are specifically warned, in no uncertain terms, to resist such efforts.
And there is a revealed way in which Christians are to resist Satan: “Resist him [Satan], steadfast [stand ‘firm,’ ‘unmovable’] in the faith . . . .” (1 Peter 5:9). The expression, “the faith,” in passages of this nature has a peculiar reference to the Word of the Kingdom (cf. Luke 18:8; 2 Timothy 4:7; Jude 3). Christians, in this respect, are to steadfastly resist Satan’s efforts to bring about their fall through worldly or fleshly means by keeping their eyes, their attention, their thoughts immovably fixed on the things surrounding the coming kingdom of Christ.
In the words of Hebrews 12:1, 2, Christians are to look “from to Jesus” (literal translation). That is, they are to look from the surrounding things in this present world to Jesus. They are to take their eyes off the things of the world and keep them fixed upon Christ. And looking to Christ cannot be separated from looking to the kingdom of Christ (Daniel 2:34, 35, 44, 45). Within a Scriptural framework, a person cannot look to One (Christ) apart from looking to the other (the kingdom) at the same time.
Keeping one’s eyes continuously fixed on Christ and His coming kingdom will take care of the things of this world. Then Amalek — the man of flesh — is to be slain “with the edge of the sword,” while resisting Satan relative to his attempts to cause a person to give heed to the fleshly impulses of the soul (or to Satan’s attempts to get a person to take his eyes off of Christ and His coming kingdom and look again to the things of the present surrounding world, the kingdom under Satan).
That which is meant by “the edge of the sword” in Exodus 17:13 is explained in Ephesians 6:17 as “the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God.” The Israelites had supernaturally been given both Manna and Water before engaging Amalek in battle (typifying the Word and the Spirit [given to lead a person “into all truth” within the Word], both provided supernaturally as well). This, in the type, was all physical — a physical provision, followed by a physical battle. However, the antitype deals with spiritual matters — a spiritual provision, followed by a spiritual battle.
The “sword of the Spirit,” the Word of God, is the only offensive part of the armor listed in Ephesians 6:13-17. The rest of the armor is for defensive purposes, and the Christian is not to take the Sword and fight Amalek apart from properly clothing himself with the defensive part of the armor first, no more so than he is to do this apart from having his eyes fixed on the coming kingdom of Christ. And, interestingly enough, viewing the armor from an overall perspective, the complete armor has to do with preparations for engaging oneself in a battle with respect to present and future regality — warring against the incumbent rulers in the kingdom with a view to one day occupying positions as co-heirs with Christ when He takes the kingdom.
(In the preceding respect, Ephesians chapter six and Exodus chapter seventeen are sections of Scripture that form God-given commentaries on one other.)
Before entering the battle, a person’s loins are to be girded “with truth” (which has to do with entering the conflict in a sincere or earnest manner [v. 14]); he is to put on “the breastplate of righteousness” (which has to do with right living [v. 14]); his feet are to be “shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace” (which has to do with both the gospel of grace and the gospel of glory, two parts of the good news that cannot be separated from one another, i.e., a person has been redeemed [the gospel of grace] for a purpose [the gospel of glory] [v. 15]); he is to take “the shield of faith” (wherewith, through faithfulness in the battle, he will be able “to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked [‘wicked one,’ Satan]” [v. 16]); and he is to take “the helmet of salvation” (which is “the hope of salvation” [1 Thessalonians 5:8], having to do with the hope set before Christians [v. 17]).
(Ref. the author’s book, The Spiritual Warfare, for a more comprehensive look at the defensive part of the armor in Ephesians 6:14-17.)
Being so clothed defensively, the Christian, keeping his eyes fixed on the goal out ahead, is then to take “the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God” (v. 17), and go forth to defeat the enemy standing in the way. He, being clothed in “the whole armor of God,” is to defeat the enemy through taking and using the Word of God, that which is “quick [alive], and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword” (Hebrews 4:12). And he is to use this Word through the power of the indwelling Spirit — who led, and continues to lead, him “into all truth” in the things of the Word — availing himself, in this manner, of both the provided Manna and Water.
Since the Word of God is the only offensive weapon that has been given for the spiritual warfare in which Christians find themselves engaged, the importance of Christians knowing and understanding this Word — which reveals all the various things about the present enemy and the coming kingdom — is self-evident. Knowing and understanding these things, they are in a position to overcome the world, the flesh, and the devil; but apart from knowing and understanding these things, defeat can only be their lot.
In summation, note that the battle is, in reality, the Lord’s, not the Christians’, though Christians are actively engaged in the battle (seen in the two spheres of the battle in the type — Moses on the top of the hill, holding the Scepter, and Joshua down below, wielding the sword). It is a spiritual and supernatural battle that must be fought on a spiritual and supernatural plain.
Christians are to stay in the Word, walk in the Spirit and keep their eyes focused in the right direction. They are simply to faithfully and patiently endure in the present race of the faith after this fashion and let the Lord win the spiritual battle through supernatural means. And, through so doing, Christians will win the battle, victoriously overcoming the enemy.
Slay Amalek, or…
Either slay Amalek, as the Lord commands, or Amalek will, in the end, rise up and slay you. This is a teaching graphically set forth in the books of 1and 2 Samuel (cf. Numbers 14:42, 43; 20:2-21).
Saul, the first king in Israel, was told by Samuel, “Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have . . . .” (1 Samuel 15:3). But Saul rendered incomplete obedience. He spared Agag, the king of the Amalekites; and he saved the best of Amalek’s possessions — the sheep and oxen “to sacrifice to the Lord,” along with the fatlings, the lambs, and everything that appeared good in his sight (1 Samuel 15:7-15).
This resulted in the Lord, through Samuel, rejecting Saul as king over Israel (1 Samuel 15:16-28). And in later years, because Saul had not previously carried out the Lord’s command concerning Amalek, an Amalekite was present and slew Saul after he had been mortally wounded in a battle with the Philistines.
The account of Saul’s death in 1 Samuel 31:1-6 and the account given to David by the Amalekite who killed Saul in 2 Samuel 1:2-10 must be compared to see and understand exactly what occurred. Saul had been mortally wounded in battle, he fell on his sword in an attempt to kill himself, but he failed in the attempt. An Amalekite then appeared, and, responding to Saul’s question, “Who are you?”, said, “I am an Amalekite.” Then Saul said, “Please stand over me and kill me, for anguish has come upon me, but my life still remains in me” (2 Samuel 1:7-9).
And the Amalekite, relating the story to David, said,
So I stood over him and killed him, because I was sure that he could not live after he had fallen. And I took the crown that was on his head and the bracelet that was on his arm, and have brought them here to my lord . . . . (2 Samuel 1:10)
Saul, in the beginning, had been commanded to slay Amalek. But he didn’t. And, in the end, after Saul had “fallen,” Amalek not only slew him but stripped him of his regality.
That is the central point in the Old Testament to which the warning in Revelation 3:11 relates:
Behold, I am coming quickly! Hold fast what you have, that no one may take your crown.
Either slay Amalek now, as the Lord commands, or he will bring you down and, in the end, rise up, slay you, and take your crown.
And the “crown” has to do with the regal part of the rights of the firstborn. It has to do with
occupying a position with Christ in the coming kingdom, for only crowned rulers will ascend the throne with Christ and realize the other two aspects of the birthright (being not only kings but priests [king-priests], and receiving a double portion of all the Father’s goods as co-heirs with the “King of kings, and Lord of lords”).
1) Aaron and Hur’s Help
Note that Aaron and Hur ascended the hill with Moses and helped when he became weary in the battle (vv. 10, 12). There would be a dual type in relation to Moses holding the scepter on the top of the hill. Though Christ, fulfilling one part of the type, would need no help, Christians, fulfilling the other part of the type, would need help. And Aaron and Hur can be seen in the second part of the type.
One part of the picture concerns Christ fighting the battle on the Christians’ behalf, and the other part of the picture concerns Christians engaged in the battle as well. And Christians grow weary in the battle and need help from fellow-Christians also engaged in the battle. Christians are to help one another in this respect.
That’s what Hebrews 10:23-25 is about. We are told to “hold fast the profession of our faith [lit., ‘the confession of the hope’] without wavering”; and we are told to associate ourselves with other Christians of like mind to encourage, exhort, and pray for one another, “and so much the more,” as we “see the day approaching.”
It is, at times, a lonely and weary battle in the place of exile; and Christians have been exhorted to help one another in the race of the faith. They are to encourage one another, help one another hold the scepter high as each goes forth, properly arrayed, to combat the enemy with the Sword of the Spirit.
2) Until the Going down of the Sun
And the battle, after this fashion, is to be fought “until the going down of the sun” (v. 12), which depicts a battle lasting the entire duration of the Christian life. Christians are in the race of the faith for the long haul, and the battle exists throughout the entire course of the race.
When Moses began to grow weary in the battle, Aaron and Hur not only helped hold his hands up but they also placed a stone under Moses so he could sit, though still holding the scepter high. And, through Aaron and Hur’s help, Moses was able to continue after this fashion for the entire duration of the time. Scripture reads, “. . . his hands were steady until the going down of the sun” (v. 12).
The “stone” upon which Moses sat itself pointed to the kingdom of Christ, to which the “rod,” the scepter, he held pointed (Daniel 2:34, 35, 44, 45). Then, beyond that, Moses, Aaron, and Hur had gone up to the top of a particular hill — “the hill”; and the word “hill,” as “mountain,” when used in a symbolic sense in Scripture, signifies a kingdom (Isaiah 2:2-4). Typically, they fought the battle from the top of a particular kingdom as they held up the scepter.
Everything about realizing victory in the battle against Amalek centers around one thought — taking one’s eyes off the things surrounding the present kingdom under Satan and fixing them on the things surrounding the coming kingdom under Christ.
In the words of Genesis 19:17, “. . . escape to the mountain, lest you be consumed.”
 Redeemed for a Purpose by Arlen L. Chitwood, The Lamp Broadcast, Inc., 1998, pages 29-42